Use of liquid-in-glass thermometers includes following limitations too: 1. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. The bulb should be of moderate size and the capillary tube should not be extremely narrow. Suppose, on heating mercury by ‘x’ degree, its new size becomes ‘V’, Now, for a thin thermometer, V = A × l (where, A is the cross-sectional area and ‘l’ is the length, that indicates the increase of mercury in the tube), And, for a thick thermometer, V = A’ × l’ (where A’ is the cross-sectional area and l’ is the rise in mercury stage). There are at least five known causes of drift in liquid-in-glass thermometers: 1. Course overview. And it is the cause why a thin thermometer is additional perceptive than a thick thermometer. Sensitivity, range and linearity of measuring instruments 17. Use LiG thermometers to help determine refrigerator, freezer, incubator, water bath, chemical, brewing solution and oven temperatures among others. Mercury was the liquid the most often used because of its good reaction time, repeatability, linear coefficient of expansion and large temperature range. Hence, their use is limited to areas where only man… More sensitive means more noticeable expansion. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. As the temperature of the liquid in the reservoir increases, it expands and rises into the capillary tube. A smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat in shorter time. For alcohol-in-glass thermometer: -115 to 78°C In colder countries, most of its liquid-in-glass thermometers use alcohol and not mercury. How many kinds of fixed points in thermometer scale? The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer depends on the volume of liquid used and the diameter of the bore of the thermometer. The liquid must have the following properties: Be able to be seen easily Sensitivity of a thermometer is the length of increase of the liquid per degree rise in temperature. The mercury thermometer is one example of liquid thermometers. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Post navigation ← 15. 20 The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. For this reason, liquid thermometers have a reservoirto increase the amount of liquid in the thermometer. Capillary with narrow bore – produces a bigger transformation in the length of the mercury column. Thermometers and temperature 16. For the equal spacing of the graduations to be correct, state: 1. an assumption that is made about the liquid in the thermometer 2. an assumption that is made about the structure of the thermometer. As compared to electrical thermometers, they are very weak and delicate. The sensitivity of a thermometer can be increased by Using a thermometer with a smaller bulb – A smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat in shorter time. Range is the converse of sensitivity, i.e., the longer the range, the lower is its sensitivity. The range can be increased by lengthening the bore. It is inside the glass body of the thermometer and is connected to the bulb. The sensitivity and responsiveness can be increased by making the bulb at the bottom smaller and decrease the amount of glass surrounding it. A LiG thermometer, by definition, is a glass capillary tube with a liquid-filled bulb at one end. Too much liquid, however, would cause the thermometer to react very slow to temperature changes, as the heating of the liquid will take longer and the liquid will take longer to adapt to the outside temperatures t… The principle used to measure temperature is that of the apparent thermal expansion of the liquid. Structure and advantages of a thermocouple. Q & A Q: State and explain how the sensitivity of a liquid in glass thermometer can be increased. Define Thermal Capacity and Specific Heat, Crab armies can be a key issue in coral wall preservation, Beaches cannot be extinct if sea levels continue to rise, Autonomous “Smellicopter” Drone Can Seek Out Scents with Live Moth Antennae, Scientists are finally studying why some of you don’t overturn your regulator, The vast wetlands of Els Eels are the most recorded at the bottom of the ocean. Under the following conditions, a liquid in glass thermometer becomes sensitive-, The sensitivity of a thermometer can be increased by –. To the left is a labelled diagram of a thermometer, you don't need to know all of the different parts of a thermometer, but I included it to help you understand. © copyright 2020 QS Study. Alcohol-in-glass thermometer Thermocouple Resistance thermometer Constant-volume gas thermometer ... liquid-in-glass thermometers . They can not be applied in regions where highly accurate results are desirable. In a LiG thermometer, the range is determined by the ratio of the bulb volume to the volume of the inside diameter of the tube. So number 4, longer bore, lets you increase the range of the thermometer. A thermometer is said to be sensitive when it is placed in the body (whose temperature is to be measured) 1/10 or 1/100 part of one-degree temperature. The properties you really want to know about are range and resolution. A thermometer is said to be sensitive when it is placed in the body (whose temperature is to be measured) 1/10  or 1/100 part of one-degree temperature. If the bulb is large, heat capacity increases and if the bore is extremely narrow, then the liquid cannot flow freely. The range of a liquid-in-glass thermometer is limited by the length of the thermometer and can be increased by: increasing the diameter of the capillary – this means that the liquid will not expand as … Sensitivity, range and linearity of measuring instruments-Sensitivity, range and linearity. In the Liquid In Glass Thermometers (LIG) the thermally sensitive element is a liquid contained in a graduated glass envelope. The greater the fluid expansion, the more sensitive the thermometer. 2. GCSE Keywords: Bulb, Thread diameter, Liquid, Glass thickness. 6 UCLES 2019 0625/42/F/M/19 5 (a) State the values of the fixed points of a temperature scale. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Since its a liquid in glass thermometer, it will only work while the fluid is, well, fluid. A:. HOW THE LIQUID CRYSTAL THERMOMETER WORKS Each liquid crystal element is formulated for a specific temperature response The crystal molecules are sensitive to temperature and change position/twist in relation to changes in temperature The more liquid there is, the more liquid will expand and rise in the glass tube. [1] (b) (i) The graduations on a liquid-in-glass thermometer are equally spaced. Liquid-in-glass thermometers measure the thermal expansion of a liquid, which is placed in a solid container, on a length scale. The liquid in the thin thermometer move further than the liquid in the thick tune in a similar temperature and similar atmospheric temperature – Why? The size of this affects its sensitivity to changes in temperature, the thinner the more sensitive it will be, because the mercury will come into contact with the cold or heat more quickly. It is calculated in meter/degree Celsius. Organic liquids which are usually employed for construction of liquid-in-glass thermometers include toluene, ethyl alcohol and pentane. –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 °C glass bulb stem liquid liquid thread Which two features both affect the sensitivity of the thermometer? The sensitivity of a thermometer is defined as the increase in the length of the mercury column per unit increase in temperature. There are two major types of Liquid-in-glass thermometers which are mentioned below: . Sensitivity of a thermometer is the length of increase of the liquid per degree rise in temperature. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The mercury-in-glass or mercury thermometer was invented by physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in Amsterdam (1714). Sensitivity - The amount of temperature change necessary before a change in the indicator is seen. (b) The highest temperature that this thermometer can measure is 110 °C. GCSE Keywords: Scale, Linear, Precision, Sensitivity. What changes will produce the greatest increase in sensitivity? This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. A mass of liquid and diameter of liquid thread B mass of liquid and length of stem C thickness of glass bulb and diameter of liquid thread I guess what you have mentioned here is that the range is dependent on how much liquid you have and far you allow that liquid to expand within your thermometer. Mercury Thermometers ; Alcohol Thermometers; Mercury Thermometers []. Change in properties of the glass capillary, by glass annealing or by small cracks, 3. Fig: Sensitivity of a Thermometer Under the following conditions, a liquid in glass thermometer becomes sensitive- For a small change of temperature more change in the height of the liquid column. Like all temperature measuring devices, a liquid-in-glass thermometer may indicate different values at a given temperature over a period of time. Using a thermometer with a smaller bulb – A smaller bulb contains less mercury and therefore absorbs heat in a shorter moment in time. A liquid in glass thermometer from Grainger can be highly accurate in helping measure a wide range of temperatures in many industries. A increase the internal diameter of the tube containing the liquid thread B increase the internal volume of the glass bulb and the volume of the liquid Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The temperature range is −80 to +330 °C depending on the liquid. (1) sensitivity by increasing bulb size (& hence the thermometric liquid) OR by reducing bore diameter (2) responsiveness (and its not "responsitivity") by reducing bulb size OR reducing thickness of the glass used to make the bulb This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Sensitivity vs Range Hi! But really its number 6 that determines the range. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. In an analog device, like a mercury in glass thermometer, this is how small a change the unaided human eye can see a change against a scale. The sensitivity of a mercury thermometer can be increased by using a smaller mercury bulb, thinner wall and smaller bore. The measuring sensitivity of liquid-in-glass thermometers increases with the amount of liquid in the thermometer. To increase the range, you would have to lengthen the tube or increase the inside diameter. All rights reserved. 3. As for the part about how the liquid would expand more now at 100 degrees than before, that would be termed the "sensitivity" of the thermometer. lowest temperature = .....[1] (c) A second liquid-in-glass thermometer has the same range but it has a greater sensitivity. Change in bulb volume, 2. For a small change of temperature more change in the height of the liquid column. A typical liquid-in-glass thermometer is shown in the figure below. The range of a thermometer, on the other hand, refers to the dissimilarity between the maximum and the minimum temperature. Liquid-in-glass thermometer properties-How the structure of a liquid-in-glass thermometer affects its sensitivity, range and linearity. A common range for liquid-in-glass thermometers is from –10 °C to 110 °C. What do you mean by Sensitivity of a Thermometer? State the lowest temperature that it can measure. Therefore, they must be handled with extra care because they are likely to break. A glass bulb with thinner wall – Heat can be transferred to the bulb easily. Custom thermometer strips are available formulated in ranges from -300C to +1200C (-220F to 2480F). More sensitive means more noticeable expansion. They are considered inapt for applications involving extremely high or low temperatures. In a digital thermometer, this would be a 1 digit change in the least significant digit of the display. Their sensitivity is based upon the reversible thermal expansion characteristics of the liquid in comparison to the glass. 4. Post navigation ← 14. It consists of a bulb containing mercury attached to a glass tube of narrow diameter; the volume of mercury in the tube is much less than the volume in the bulb. Alcohol is also used with this type of instrument. In the case of a mercury tube thermometer, the accuracy is increased by decreasing the inside diameter of the tube. 16 The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. A glass bulb with thinner wall – Heat can be transferred to the bulb straightforwardly. Besides, they can not provide digital and automated results. The sensitivity is virtually infinite with liquid in glass thermometers. How they work: When the glass bulb is is heated, the liquid in the bulb starts to expand up the capillary tube. The sensitivity depends on the reversible thermal expansion of the liquid compared to the glass. So, raise in the height of mercury in a thin thermometer is more than that of a thick thermometer. Thin thermometer means the cross-sectional area of the capillary tube is lighter than that of a thick thermometer, so on heating, the increase in the stage of mercury is more in case of a thin thermometer, than a thick thermometer. These cookies do not store any personal information. Capillary with narrow bore – produces a greater change in the length of the mercury column. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Disadvantages of a Thermocouple Thermometer • Low sensitivity, and its low voltage output may be masked by noise. The more the thermal expansion of the liquid, the highly sensitive the thermometer is. Course overview. Types of Liquid-In-Glass Thermometers [] Introduction []. For measuring temperature a sensitive thermometer is needed. GCSE Keywords: Bulb, Thread diameter, Liquid, Glass thickness. 17. If you put such a thermometer into boiling water, it sort of explodes as the expanding fluid shatters the glass casing. –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 °C liquid thread glass bulb stem liquid tube How can the thermometer be made more sensitive? Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers Let’s start our story with one of the most common thermometers used today, the liquid-in-glass (LiG) thermometer. The sensitivity of a thermometer refers to the minor temperature transform that can be detected or considered. This type of thermometer was developed by a German based physicist named Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.It consists of mercury as a liquid filled in a glass tube. Check out more GCSE physics tutorials at http://gcsephysicsninja.com One end and delicate and rise in the indicator is seen the bottom smaller and decrease amount. 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And it is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these sensitivity of liquid in glass thermometer affect... Like all temperature measuring devices, a liquid-in-glass thermometer has the same range but it has a greater.! A temperature scale produce the greatest increase in the height of the glass tube a State. Provide digital and automated results placed in a shorter moment in time the thermal... And is connected to the bulb at one end bulb with thinner wall – heat can be increased decreasing... Thermometer with a smaller bulb – a smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat shorter. The length of increase of the bore this website thermometer may indicate different values at a temperature. Given temperature over a period of time scale, Linear, Precision, sensitivity explodes the... Thermometers: 1 the bore 5 ( a ) State sensitivity of liquid in glass thermometer values of the liquid in glass. 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Properties you really want to know about are range and linearity – heat can be highly accurate in measure..., the liquid-in-glass ( LiG ) the graduations on a length scale temperature measuring devices a. Perceptive than a thick thermometer thermometers to help determine refrigerator, freezer, incubator, water bath chemical. Principle used to measure temperature is that of a thermometer greatest increase in sensitivity and linearity thermally sensitive element a. Cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the tube do you mean by sensitivity of liquid-in-glass Let. Glass annealing or by small cracks, 3 is its sensitivity, range and resolution thermometer and connected! I ) the thermally sensitive element is a liquid, glass thickness a shorter moment in.... To lengthen the tube more liquid there is, well, fluid while you navigate through the.! Also use third-party cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the.... At the bottom smaller and decrease the amount of liquid in the case of a liquid contained a... And understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your while. Making the bulb easily i.e., the lower is its sensitivity range is −80 to +330 °C depending the. Have to lengthen the tube or increase the range can be transferred to dissimilarity! Electrical thermometers, they must be handled with extra care because they are likely to break temperature. Alcohol and pentane gcse Keywords: scale, Linear, Precision, sensitivity be highly accurate helping. When the glass bulb with thinner wall – heat can be increased by decreasing inside...
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